The Study Of Transfer

The transfer of Momentum, Energy, Mass, Electricity.

Heat transfer

Recognized as a unified discipline of fundamental on basis of Fluxes, Forces.

A flux like – Heat Transfer, Momentum Transfer, Mass Transfer, Electricity and Chemical Reaction rate is directly proportional to respective conjugate force of

  1. Heat Transfer
    • Temperature Gradient
  2. Momentum Transfer
    • Velocity Gradient
  3. Mass Transfer
    • Concentration Gradient
  4. Electricity
    • Electric Potential Gradient
  5. Chemical Reaction
    • Chemical Affinity

The constant of proportionality being a property of medium, like Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, Diffusion Co-efficient and Electric Conductivity.

A driving force causes the respective flux from a higher to a lower potential and reverse never happens spontaneously.

It’s law of nature
Nature

Transfer process indicates

The tendency of a system to proceed towards Equilibrium

For example In a solid body Non-uniform temperature distribution is transferred so establish a Uniform temperature distribution in the body

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  • Viscosity
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Viscosity

Viscosity is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.

Fluid

When two layers of a fluid, apart by a distance ‘dy’ , move one over the other at different velocities, say u and u+du as shown in figure, the viscosity together with relative velocity cause a shear stress acting between the fluid layers.

Figure

The top layer causes a shear stress on the adjacent lower layer while the lower layer causes a shear stress on the adjacent top layer. This shear stress is proportional to the rate of change of velocity with respect to y. It is denoted by τ (Tau)

Mathematically, τ ∝ (du/dy) or τ = μ (du/dy) where μ (mu) is the constant of proportionality and is known as the co-efficient of dynamic viscosity or only viscosity. (du/dy) represents the rate of shear strain or rate of shear deformation or velocity gradient.

We have, μ=[τ/(du/dy)]

Continue reading “Viscosity”